Melatonin

Posted by on in Uncategorized
  • Font size: Larger Smaller
  • Hits: 3130
  • Subscribe to this entry
  • Print

Description

Melatonin is produced naturally in the body by the pineal gland.1.2 It is a primary hormone involved in regulating the body’s circadian rhythms and female menstrual cycle.1,3,4 It also plays important roles in blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction, immune system health, and bone and tooth health.1,5.6

Melatonin levels are higher at night, suppressed by bright light, and decline as we age. Low levels of melatonin can cause sleep disturbances, as it is a primary component in the sleep-wake cycle.1,7 Melatonin is derived from tryptophan, an essential amino acid. When tryptophan is consumed through the foods we eat, it is converted into serotonin (a neurotransmitter) and then broken down further into melatonin at night.1

Benefits

  • Has powerful antioxidant effects.1,8-11
  • Promotes brain health even under challenging conditions.1,12-17
  • Potentially beneficial in preventing abnormal cellular development.1,17-24
  • Has immune-enhancing properties.1,25-32
  • Beneficial when used peri-operatively (surrounding surgeries).1,33-41
  • Promotes better sleep.1,42-46
  • Helps avoid jet lag.1,47-50
  • Aids in the biologic regulation of circadian rhythms.1,3,51
  • Supports reproductive and follicular health in women desiring to get pregnant.4,9,52-57
  • Has adaptogenic properties.58-60
  • Promotes a healthy inflammatory response.61-66

Side effects

Adverse reactions associated with melatonin include morning grogginess and daytime hangover. Aspirin, NSAIDS, and beta-blockers may lead to decreased melatonin levels. Use of melatonin with benzodiazepenes, sedating antihistamines, sedating antidepressants, and other sedating drugs may cause additive sedation and increase incidence of adverse effects.

Administration

Those who use melatonin supplements to help with sleep disturbances or jet lag usually take about 3 mg at bed time. Morning drowsiness indicates a dose is too high. Dose can be increased under physician supervision to obtain a good night's sleep.

References

  1. No authors listed. Melatonin. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):326-336.
  2. Srinivasan V, et al. Melatonin and melatonergic drugs on sleep: possible mechanisms of action. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119(6):821-46.
  3. Bittencourt LR, et al. Chronobiological disorders: current and prevalent conditions. J Occup Rehabil. 2010 Mar;20(1):21-32.
  4. Shi L, et al. Melatonin and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Curr Med Chem.2013;20(15):2017-31.
  5. Liu J, et al. Melatonin effects on hard tissues: bone and tooth. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 May 10;14(5):10063-74.
  6. Arushanian ÉB, et al. Therapeutic potential of melatonin in oral cavity diseases. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2012;75(6):48-52.
  7. Shechter A, et al. Nocturnal polysomnographic sleep across the menstrual cycle in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Sleep Med. 2012 Sep;13(8):1071-8.
  8. Ortiz F, et al. The beneficial effects of melatonin against heart mitochondrial impairment during sepsis: inhibition of iNOS and preservation of nNOS. J Pineal Res. 2013 Sep 30. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12099. PubMed PMID: 24117944.
  9. Tamura H, et al. Melatonin as a free radical scavenger in the ovarian follicle. Endocr J.2013 Jan 31;60(1):1-13.
  10. Farías JG, et al. Melatonin protects the heart, lungs and kidneys from oxidative stress under intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rats. Biol Res. 2012;45(1):81-5.
  11. Pandi-Perumal SR, et al. Melatonin antioxidative defense: therapeutical implications for aging and neurodegenerative processes. Neurotox Res. 2013 Apr;23(3):267-300.
  12. Marchetti C, et al. Melatonin protects PLPC liposomes and LDL towards radical-induced oxidation. J Pineal Res. 2011 Oct;51(3):286-96
  13. Srinivasan V, et al. Role of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotox Res. 2005;7(4):293-318.
  14. Arushanian EB, Baida OA, Mastiagin SS. Effect of melatonin on memory, individual time perception, and anxiety in young people of different chronotype groups. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006 Jan-Feb;69(1):21-23.
  15. Rosales-Corral SA, et al. Alzheimer's disease: pathological mechanisms and the beneficial role of melatonin. J Pineal Res. 2012 Mar;52(2):167-202.
  16. Cecon E, Markus RP. Relevance of the chronobiological and non-chronobiological actions of melatonin for enhancing therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative disorders.Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2011 May;5(2):91-9.
  17. Rios ER, et al. Melatonin: pharmacological aspects and clinical trends. Int J Neurosci. 2010 Sep;120(9):583-90.
  18. Brzozowski T, et al. The role of melatonin and L-tryptophan in prevention of acute gastric lesions induced by stress, ethanol, ischemia, and aspirin. J Pineal Res.1997 Sep;23(2):79-89.
  19. Di Bella G, et al. Melatonin anticancer effects: review. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Jan 24;14(2):2410-30.
  20. Wang J, et al. Melatonin potentiates the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of  ursolic acid in colon cancer cells by modulating multiple signaling pathways. J Pineal Res. 2012 Dec 8. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12035. PubMed PMID: 23330808.
  21. Wang J, et al. Melatonin suppresses migration and invasion via inhibition of oxidative stress pathway in glioma cells. J Pineal Res. 2012 Sep;53(2):180-7.
  22. Cui P, et al. Melatonin prevents human pancreatic carcinoma cell PANC-1-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor expression. J Pineal Res. 2012 Mar;52(2):236-43.
  23. Bizzarri M, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the pro-apoptotic actions of melatonin in cancer: a review. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013 Sep 14.
  24. Hill SM, et al. Age-related decline in melatonin and its MT1 receptor are associated with decreased sensitivity to melatonin and enhanced mammary tumor growth. Curr Aging Sci. 2013 Feb;6(1):125-33.
  25. Cardinali DP, et al. Melatonin and the immune system in aging. Neuroimmunomodulation.2008;15(4-6):272-278.
  26. Nasrabadi NN, et al. Expression of MT2 Receptor in Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma and its Relationship with Clinicopathological Features. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2013 Oct 19.
  27. Jung JH, et al. Melatonin Suppresses the Expression of 45S Preribosomal RNA and Upstream Binding Factor and Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Puromycin in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:879746. doi: 10.1155/2013/879746. Epub 2013 Apr 7.
  28. Maldonado MD, et al. Melatonin protects mast cells against cytotoxicity mediated by chemical stimuli PMACI: possible clinical use. J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Sep 15;262(1-2):62-5.
  29. Csaba G. The pineal regulation of the immune system: 40 years since the discovery. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2013 Jun;60(2):77-91.
  30. de Oliveira Tatsch-Dias M, et al. The concept of the immune-pineal axis tested in patients undergoing an abdominal hysterectomy. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2013;20(4):205-12.
  31. Carrillo-Vico A, et al. Melatonin: buffering the immune system. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Apr 22;14(4):8638-83.
  32. Sokolovic D, et al. Melatonin protects rat thymus against oxidative stress caused by exposure to microwaves and modulates proliferation/apoptosis of thymocytes. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2013 Mar;32(1):79-90.
  33. Jarratt J. Perioperative melatonin use. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2011 Mar;39(2):171-81.
  34. Maitra S, et al. Melatonin in perioperative medicine: Current perspective. Saudi J Anaesth.2013 Jul;7(3):315-321.
  35. Kurdi MS, Patel T. The role of melatonin in anaesthesia and critical care. Indian J Anaesth.2013 Mar;57(2):137-44.
  36. Yoshitaka S, et al. Perioperative plasma melatonin concentration in postoperative critically ill patients: its association with delirium. J Crit Care. 2013 Jun;28(3):236-42.
  37. Wilhelmsen M, et al. Anxiolytical, analgesic and sedative effects of melatonin in the perioperative phase. Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 May 16;173(20):1424-7.
  38. Sultan SS. Assessment of role of perioperative melatonin in prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium after hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia in the elderly. Saudi J Anaesth. 2010 Sep;4(3):169-73.
  39. Ismail SA, Mowafi HA. Melatonin provides anxiolysis, enhances analgesia, decreases intraocular pressure, and promotes better operating conditions during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2009 Apr;108(4):1146-51.
  40. Caumo W, et al. Preoperative anxiolytic effect of melatonin and clonidine on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Pain. 2009 Jan;10(1):100-8. doi: 0.1016/j.jpain.2008.08.007.
  41. Caumo W, et al. The clinical impact of preoperative melatonin on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2007 Nov;105(5):1263-71.
  42. Pandi-Perumal SR, et al. The effect of melatonergic and non-melatonergic antidepressants on sleep: weighing the alternatives. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan; 4:1-13.
  43. Pandi-Perumal SR, et al. Role of the melatonin system in the control of sleep: therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs. 2007;21(12):995-1018.
  44. Sánchez-Barceló EJ, et al. Clinical uses of melatonin: evaluation of human trials. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(19):2070-95. Review.
  45. Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009 Sep 24;129(18):1884-7.
  46. Lemoine P, Nir T, et al. Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects. J Sleep Res. 2007 Dec;16(4):372-380.
  47. Zee PC, Goldstein CA. Treatment of shift work disorder and jet lag. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2010 Sep;12(5):396-411.
  48. Srinivasan V, et al. Jet lag, circadian rhythm sleep disturbances, and depression: the role of melatonin and its analogs. Adv Ther. 2010 Nov;27(11):796-813.
  49. Paul MA, et al. Phase advance with separate and combined melatonin and light treatment.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Mar;214(2):515-23.
  50. Paul MA, et al. Melatonin treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Feb;208(3):377-86.
  51. Gitto E, et al. Update on the use of melatonin in pediatrics. J Pineal Res. 2011 Jan;50(1):21-8.  
  52. Tamura H, et al. The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle. J Ovarian Res. 2012 Jan 26;5:5. doi: 10.1186/1757-2215-5-5.
  53. Reiter RJ, et al. Peripheral reproductive organ health and melatonin: ready for prime time.Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Apr 2;14(4):7231-72.
  54. Rizzo P, et al. Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010 Jun;14(6):555-61.
  55. Batıoğlu AS, et al. The efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012 Feb;28(2):91-3.
  56. Carlomagno G, et al. Contribution of myo-inositol and melatonin to human reproduction.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011 Dec;159(2):267-72.
  57. Reiter RJ, et al. Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology. Hum Reprod Update. 2013 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 24132226.
  58. Arushanian EB, Beĭer EV. Pineal hormone melatonin is an universal adaptogenic agent.Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2012 Jul-Sep;43(3):82-100. Russian.
  59. Arushanian EB, Naumov SS. Comparative experimental study of the psychotropic and chronotropic activity of adaptogenic phytopreparations and melaxen. EkspKlin Farmakol.2010 Jan;73(1):7-9.
  60. Smirnova AV, Naumcheva NN. Solar activity and cardiovascular diseases. Klin Med(Mosk). 2008;86(1):10-7.
  61. Mauriz JL, et al J. A review of the molecular aspects of melatonin's anti-inflammatory actions: recent insights and new perspectives. J Pineal Res. 2012 May 31. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2012.01014.x.
  62. Jaworek J, et al. Protective effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis. Int J Inflam.2012;2012:173675. doi: 10.1155/2012/173675.
  63. Ochoa JJ, et al. Melatonin supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced by strenuous exercise in adult human males. J Pineal Res. 2011 Nov;51(4):373-80.
  64. Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. Antiinflammatory activity of melatonin in central nervous system.Curr Neuropharmacol. 2010 Sep;8(3):228-42.
  65. Hardeland R, et al. Melatonin–a pleiotropic, orchestrating regulator molecule. Prog Neurobiol. 2011 Mar;93(3):350-84.
  66. Alamili M, et al. Melatonin suppresses markers of inflammation and oxidative damage in a human daytime endotoxemia model. J Crit Care. 2013 Oct 16. pii: S0883-9441(13)00326-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.09.006.
best writing rated online services resume research a to where buy paper letter job example cover sales for year wonders of help essay paper help an i writing need argumentative term papers sale for college templates cheap resume about essays father experience job with for a to no how make resume cheap amusements essays help ict homework i with my need college paper my do college essay questions common service application review business can i plan buy a free vs start8 paid dating listening to with help music does homework rgimes parlementaires sur dissertation les editing services essay quality admission zestoretic paypal acquisto essay for writing less service homework mans myth help admission help essay graduate northwestern essays secondary med for school writing and paper english publication free help online chat math help thesis dubai in english others essay helping capital essay punishment on good username for dating online service top paper research 10 writing probability homework statistics help generico acquisto italia peo on luther essay king martin a with writing help start dissertation to bipolar research children disorder paper mancuso dating svindal essay thinker reader writer buy school paper on time dissertation on crm money on buy essay love can while essay guy high written telugu papers news telangana online namaste quickly write to how essay application college history developing essays two essay economic and of history development countries social online buy acyclovir generic it resume service writing and for romeo juliet analysis essay literary hour - where without to 36 Ibuprofen Ibuprofen purchase Saint-Felicien prescription homework help alabama online chat english homework help cheap paper buy notebooks plagiarism admission essay no service editing student for council help a writing speech ca online service resume orange writing best county writing programs paper essay volunteerism service argumentative order essay homework of texas university website homework service tormala a buy dissertation doctoral zakary pay application for order contoh chronological essay for case study treatment the spectrum of interaction a of parent-child therapy disorder autism essay writer unblocked writing essays an help online with homework statistics essay buy custom written accept masters proposal order we money resume eastern writing best service online nepal write school a statement medical for personal with resume card debit online order buy college papers online a experience the what of writing when is resume order online world papers services writing mining resume homework operations help order of generic cleocin gel doctoral gas thesis plasma about conversion doctoral dissertation psychology grants for homework do money my statistics edit my online paper a essay is research the thesis of what academic essay service for i my write paper my research conclusion do how my do thesis can written students by essays good please i buy do where papers get help plan writing business professional writing resume mi services kalamazoo after school helper homework papers cheap newsletter writing price service me do my homework online writing essay custom australian math my do someone homework buy shakespeare essay lines best opening admission essay college sales resume objective for structure proposal capital on dissertation letter writing a student a for recommendation day paypal pamelor 30 to letter address manager hiring cover barnardo homework help dr slides purchase presentation xylitol can fees no i yao where prescription no chun purchase best world in services writing resume the dissertation phd words homework circuit help analysis junior kent homework help woodlands help homework london jobs on rooms homework chat get to help writing dissertation custom extended service essays written by autistics in maya autobiography list order angelou personal writing service school statement medical best services nj writing the world resume essay 5 services top with websites help homework to order online delivery resume how biography to own my write in and order sociology essays comparative change length psychology thesis phd info thesis paper dissertation essay definition of argument site secure to best purchase glucotrol no prescription silfar generic essay help brock university writing malentendu le camus albert dissertation writing nurses resume services for homework god ares greek helper service writing assignment online cost prescription low no maxman free shipping for associate job letter sales cover club fight dissertation papers use research do first person craigslist Suhagra without - prescription get Suhagra Fargo military writing paper college history papers cheap kimberly dissertation and anderson my write myspace name cursive thesis religion about and yanggaeng cl dating sim minomycin ordering online cheap writing reviews services article tetracycline script how no order to cheap attention disorder thesis deficit science homework grade help 8 online tutoring homework help with atlanta professional writing best resume services paper to writing website do my excellent custom dissertation find buy online grade homework help 4th essay automatic reworder homework broderbund helpers disorders personal help statement free with cv spanish essay helper bibliography order endnote alphabetical service sc columbia writing resume custom research buy paper writing service research 2012 essay application buy college questions sample design letter mechanical engineer for cover homework tlo help jersey vs new for order script ketoconazole no cheap college level help homework have i due an tomorrow essay help paper writer website tissue paper cheapest article cheap service writing proposal writing service with experience letter position no sales assistant cover for hemingway written ernest essays book buy amazon reviews school letter medical a for of recommendation writing good divide help fractions homework essay help with my college purges essay help early buspar overseas generic admission essay service writing mba best elimite canada no script chicago writing services resume kent best homework grouping birds science helper how do to will students graduate academic for writing dissertation literature review proposal and papers where divorce get free online can i research paper payment terms essay for writers latin help homework on autism review spectrum literature disorder essay proper of an order medical for terminology medical studies case analysis essay writing help character resume services nashville writing to write on paper online conseils bonne une dissertation pour defense thesis phd ppt help writing doctoral systematic dissertation approach custom thesis skins i do my pay who to can homework statistics 895640 786522 389968 836803 1888983 84883 1816112 1310616 1783089 964956 2038834 2026215 469523 1129619 35230 917393 1186130 737634 1412570 1513160 275115 133646 1229209 2023350 1921458 674798 1644317 881827 1091942 1363272 1794650 1661743 1406361 883164 2034342 1915733 858974 163537 1724242 1554095 7348 1843451 1545171 485548 1112714 862705 1331768 1588265 1812611 1655128 868991 1804557 1551778 713482 1028459 71082 1065587 1925460 1935693 905845 41178 1515933 514076 1983965 1648838 1785566 1428099 1626597 329376 1065751 1417450 272129 1519341 714312 2045303 1371237 1406657 1594300 304309 510746 1077814 1448082 1026128 402376 31151 213386 74581 39131 1445877 485735 1240792 1020999 1449307 482317 1735038 607162 744838 1785362 1831391 420961 1667756 57614 1665382 1472320 947173 164845 1639031 696255 1221251 1452105 1641121 1627941 1344648 1572238 208756 687990 264502 1265830 255294 814566 509332 751403 1881293 1889319 1145330 236175 1137504 1491246 1535040 1346617 639852 708621 1843222 2070911 1886237 589059 1632169 1349581 1926866 1712640 135270 459122 1547245 1407471 1989265 259555 1223416 43938 1629364 1294786 747788 140177 944260 1295277 953343 653966 1163892 1089167 630802 1537288 934848 683059 735839 874443 429627 1639676 746139 1684483 1317553 1708585 1085786 133743 334901 1297760 613614 1595376 21417 186636 1554018 761592 904509 1795318 1680558 2048250 157924 1559087 432226 736983 2035445 844507 1099344 904230 1414131 222701 373774 552279 372818 787108 1138619 784526